I am an assistant professor at the Department of Economics, Ludwigs-Maximilians-University Munich.
My research focuses on the political economy of less-developed countries using modern and historical data. I have worked on the assigning of property rights in the United States, ethnic partitioning in Africa, the political legacy of mass killings in Cambodia and the impact of school reforms in Cambodia.
I work with historical and high resolution spatial data, some digitized for the first time specifically for the projects you find below.
Property Rights, Resources and Wealth: The Public Grazing Solution in the United States
Secure property rights are understood to be an effective tool to reduce resource exploitation and increase wealth. However, as property rights are not randomly allocated, causal evidence on their effectiveness is scarce. In this paper, I evaluate the impact of public property rights using the 1934 Taylor Grazing Act, which determined secure access rights for farmers to newly created, large grazing districts in the Western US. Using satellite-based vegetation data, I exploit spatial discontinuities across grazing district boundaries and find that, compared to open-access rangeland, public ownership with regulated access rights increased productivity by at least 10\%, despite farmers holding more cattle in grazing districts. These findings can be explained by secure access rights resolving uncertainty around future availability of open-access rangeland and aligning the incentives of farmers and regulators. Consistent with this, I provide evidence that, first, areas with stronger pre-reform law enforcement show larger increases in vegetation. Second, monthly patterns on vegetation are consistent with fallowing practices in which winter resting periods allow holding more cattle in the grazing season. Third, using plots sold just before the passing of the Act, I show that secure access rights can be as effective as the benchmark of privatization. I investigate alternative explanations, and find no empirical support for differential initial productivity; negative spillovers; or, systematic local manipulation of boundaries.
State Repression, Exit, and Voice: Living in the shadow of Cambodia's Killing Fields
How does state repression change political beliefs and behavior? We address this question using evidence from the genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. Exploring local variation in state coercion during the genocide, we find that repression leads to more votes in favor of the opposition over the authoritarian incumbent, stiffer electoral competition, and increased support for democratic values four decades later. At the same time, people become more cautious in their interactions with the local community as captured by less trust in others and lower participation in community organizations. The results are consistent with a theoretical model in which the experience of repression increases people's preferences for pluralism but also raises the perceived cost of dissent. These opposing forces imply that citizens are more likely to support the opposition in elections (voice), while they engage less in civil society (exit) to avoid publicly revealing their political views. In line with the prediction that increased political competition reduces elected officials' ability to extract rent, we show that the changes in political beliefs and behavior also affect policy outcomes. Together, our results indicate that the legacy of state violence can have a persistent effect on society, leading to a more competitive but less personal political environment.
The Effects of Migration and Ethnicity on African Economic Development
International migration has a considerable impact on trade between nations. While supported by evidence from developed countries, the effects of migration on trade are less clear cut for developing countries. Given the evidence on ethnic identity in Africa, standard estimates based on the nationality of migrants are likely biased in developing countries. In this paper, I expand the standard approach to explicitly account for heterogeneous ethnicities migrating between countries. Using the precolonial distribution of ethnicities as an instrument for modern day migration in Africa, I estimate a considerably larger effect on bilateral exports and economic development than previously found. I provide evidence that ethnic identification shapes bilateral trade by facilitating the flow of information, especially for ethnicities who are not part of a government coalition. I discuss potential concerns of precolonial ethnic linkages and find no evidence of omitted variable biases caused by similar languages, preferences, or conflict. The results are consistent with a model of international trade where cross border connections decrease the fixed costs of exporting by shared information.
Education and Female Empowerment
Access to education increases women’s earnings, health, and bargaining power. However, as education policy often responds to increased returns to education, it remains unclear whether these individual benefits can accumulate to a more gender-equal society. In this paper, we use unique biographical microdata on the universe of notable women to identify city-level variation in gender equality throughout German history. We exploit the staggered introduction of religious finishing schools for women starting in 1626 as a local shock to women’s access to education. Flexibly controlling for a rich set of predetermined covariates, we show that improved educational opportunities increase the probability that a leading female activist is born. In addition, there is no effect of finishing schools on the prevalence of men, nor of the introduction of male schools on women. This suggests that our findings are not confounded by a contemporaneous shift in the returns to education or time varying economic activity, as city-level construction is also not predicted by these schools. Taken together, we argue that education is an important catalyst in a society’s transition to more gender equality. We substantiate this interpretation by documenting long-term impacts on women’s rights activism and larger political participation of women born in cities that extended education to women earlier
Work in Progress
Who Benefits from Free Education? Long-Term Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Cambodia
Free primary education is considered an important public policy to promote poor children's schooling. We explore a nationwide policy experiment in Cambodia in 2000 that abolished primary school fees to assess this claim. The paper investigates the effects of the program by combining differences in fee exposure across province, time, and cohort. One additional year of free education had no impact on children living in households below the consumption poverty line, but increased the likelihood of completing primary school, led to more years of schooling completed, and raised literacy for children in households above the poverty line. To ensure a causal interpretation of the heterogeneous effects, we exploit weather-induced agricultural volatility to estimate the difference across the consumption poverty line. Though poor and non-poor children attended school to same extent after the reform, poor children were less likely to progress and complete the higher grades. The findings are consistent with the idea that poor children and their parents are affected by the local community's educational norm, where income segregation may explain why poor students fail to take advantage of the policy change.
Couch Potato or Social Butterfly? The Impact of Television Content on Social Capital
with Andrew Dickens
Eroding the incumbency advantage: Evidence from a wealth shock in the western United States
I study the effect of a large wealth transfer to the rural population on their political preferences. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 placed 142 million acres under public ownership and documented the rights to access these lands for nearby farmers. These property rights on public land increased the wealth almost immediately since they were an accepted collateral and influenced the pricing of a farm. I focus on close elections and show that counties affected by this policy were initially more likely to elect a democratic congressman at a magnitude similar to the incumbency advantage. This preference for redistributive policy is completely eroded almost immediately after the policy took place. Focusing on congressional elections during the great depression, I show that the most likely explanation is a change in preferences away from redistribution.
|SITE Stockholm, LMU Munich, CREI, Kellogg Northwestern, Rochester, Copenhagen Business School, Oslo, CERGE-EI, Passau|
|UC Santa Barbara, IPWSD Columbia, ULB Brussels, OXDEV Oxford, Goethe University Frankfurt|
|MIT, Brown, Goethe University Frankfurt|
|Harvard, MIT, Brown, University of Bergen|
|NEUDC, OXDEV Oxford, UCL, Nordic International Trade Seminar|
|Spatial Data in Economics (Master)|
|ArcGIS course for graduate students in economics|
|Teaching Assistant for 'Management and Analysis of Big Data' for David Strömberg|
|ArcGIS course for graduate students in economics, jointly lectured with Shuhei Kitamura|
|Teaching Assistant for 'Macroeconomics II, PhD course' for John Hassler|